Kristian Bjørnstad (Norway)

Certified Interpretive Host Course (IE training taster)
Workshop, 55 min

All over Europe, there are communities whose natural and cultural heritage is attracting an increasing number of tourists. However, tourism professionals don't necessarily know how to deal with local heritage and often turn to easy solutions offered by our globalised economy. A new two-day course for Certified Interpretive Hosts - part of IE's training programme - is about to start in 2017. Using hands-on activities, the course aims to show tourism professionals how their businesses can connect with local heritage, using heritage interpretation techniques, while also encouraging synergies between and among professionals. In this workshop, you will have the opportunity to try out some of these activities and share your own ideas on how this new course could be promoted and delivered in your regions / countries.

Kristian Bjørnstad is the Secretariat Director at the Norwegian Parks Association, building links between regional nature parks in the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe. He became interested in heritage interpretation through planning work in the Nærøyfjord World Heritage Park on the west coast of Norway. He's especially interested in how heritage interpretation can be used in parks and protected areas to connect people with place and to create good visitor experiences. An IE certified guide trainer and a member of IE's Training Team, Kristian is working with Valya Stergioti to create a new IE course for interpretive hosts, while also organising CIG courses in the Scandinavian countries.

Luiz Antonio Bolcato Custodio (Brazil)

Heritage interpretation -
cultural materials in educational programmes

Presentation, 25 min

The media used to support heritage interpretation are unlimited and may include museographic experiments, graphic design, audio-visuals, theatre, etc. There are innumerable ways to present sites, places, stories and cultures, thus amplifying the quality of the visit and, perhaps, making it unforgettable. Cultural products are under the realm of interpretation and they can improve cultural tourism if specially designed to facilitate the relationship between inhabitant / visitor and among place / context / history. Examples of the items produced by the Porto Alegre Cultural Memory Coordination to enrich heritage education activities in the local museum and art gallery enhance better knowledge and recognition, and establish a relationship between the public and the work of art, the city and its history, using as reference the photographic and artistic collections of the local photo gallery and art gallery as well as up to date photographs of historic buildings.

Luiz Antonio Bolcato Custodio is an architect at the Brazilian National Heritage Institute (IPHAN). He is also Professor at Centro Universitário UNIRITTER, former national president of the Brazilian ICOM Committee and Local Cultural Memory Coordinator.

Sandy Colvine (France)

Certified Interpretive Guide Course (IE training taster)
Workshop, 55 min

Do you remember being on a guided visit and really feeling a sense of connection with what you were seeing and hearing? Your guide was probably using interpretive methods to create such a positive visitor experience. Through this practical workshop, you'll take part in a range of exercises to get to grips with face-to-face interpretation methods yourself that not only speak to your heads, but to your hearts and your hands as well for a more meaningful engagement with your participants. Whether you are a seasoned guide, just starting out, or working with the public in other capacities. There are always ways to improve and make visiting heritage sites even more enjoyable for visitors and yourself, and heritage interpretation is one way of doing this.

Sandy Colvine is an IE interpretive guide trainer. Born in Scotland, he now lives and works near the town of Carpentras and is currently studying for an MSc in interpretation at the University of the Highlands and Islands in Scotland.

Nicole Deufel (Germany)

Agonistic Interpretation:
Proposal for a new paradigm of interpretation
Presentation, 55 min

This presentation proposes a new paradigm of heritage interpretation away from themes, messages and the traditional interpretive aims of making connections, facilitating appreciation and prompting behavioural change. It introduces Chantal Mouffe's (2013) concept of agonistics and explores the idea of agonistic memory. From this, the presentation considers what might be the characteristics of agonistic interpretation and how such a new philosophy of interpretation may produce practice that is more suited to contemporary contexts and developments in other fields of heritage theory and practice. In particular, the presentation will engage with critiques of the Authorized Heritage Discourse (Smith 2006) and the demands of what has been called an age of migrations (MeLa Project2015).

Nicole Deufel PhD is currently Director of Museums at a local authority in Germany. Prior to that, she worked in heritage consultancy and managed interpretation departments at various organisations in the UK. Her doctoral research at University College London focused on interpretation practice in Germany and England.

Aintzane Eguilior, Amaia Apraiz Sahagún and Ainara Martínez Matía (Spain)

European Heritage Days:
An example of the application of heritage interpretation for
the migrant communities in Biscay
Presentation, 25 min

The choice of the theme of Migration and Cultural Heritage for the European Heritage Days 2016 in Biscay (Spain) has helped to give visibility to the heritage of migrant communities. We have presented the cultural heritage of the historical territory of Biscay to the public of Biscay (locals and migrants) from a different perspective, to make it more readily accessible to them. For the 2016 edition, the focus has been moved from the heritage object to the subject: all associations and groups of Biscay, independently of their origin, nationality, social background, etc., have played a fundamental role working from different perspectives for the promotion and dissemination of cultural heritage. The Diputación Foral de Bizkaia (a provincial government with extensive powers for the dissemination of cultural heritage) has launched a campaign that can serve as an example of heritage interpretation as an element of cohesion and coexistence.

Aintzane Eguilior is Director of Cultural Heritage Communication at Bizkaikoa (Diputación Foral de Bizkaia) and Head of the EHD programme since 2001.
Amaia Apraiz Sahagún PhD and Ainara Martínez Matía PhD have been independent cultural heritage consultants and content coordinators for the European Heritage Days programme in Biscay since the year 2015.

Kate Howard and Mark Wallis (UK)

Certified Live Interpreter Course (IE training taster)
Workshop, 55 min

How do you maximise the potential of real, living people at your heritage site? What is the potential of historically costumed staff? Can a period costume ever be more than simply a visually engaging tool for children or a highly theatrical barrier to historical understanding? Is it possible to quantify and measure the impact of effective live interpretation? Can historical material delivered by a costumed staff member truly be as academically valid as everything else presented in the museum environment? Past Pleasures Ltd, UK's oldest and biggest freelance contractor providing live, costumed, historical interpretation to heritage sites across the globe, emphatically say 'Yes'! This is a taster session for a longer pilot course which will take place later in the year, as part of IE's training programme!

Kate Howard is Creative Director of Past Pleasures Ltd. She has spent twenty five years as both manager and practitioner, defining and honing best practice in historically costumed interpersonal communications in museums, galleries and heritage environments across the world.
Mark Wallis founded Past Pleasures Ltd in 1987 and remains the Managing Director. Past Pleasures holds Europe's largest contract for daily costumed interpretation (with Historic Royal Palaces, UK). The company works across the UK, while Mark travels further afield, advising museums and heritage sites around the world on the deployment of live interpretation.

Piotr Idziak and Katarzyna Baranska (Poland)

Ambassadors for the audience:
Implementation of heritage interpretation methods in Malopolska
Presentation, 25 min

The team of the Dynamics of Exhibition program supports local museums that have rich collections but lack strategic actions, competence or a systemic approach to cooperation with visitors. Such situations result from long-time neglect in development of these approaches. We support museums in overcoming their limitations. For this purpose, we develop working methods adapted to local conditions. Our approach is based on: (1) holistic recognition - we improve communication with customers through gthe development of the team and the entire organization; (2) using a variety of techniques - we combine the methodology of heritage interpretation with techniques of organization development / strategic processes with project thinking; (3) participation - at every stage we include the team within the museum, we aim to strengthen and empower staff of museums; (4) focusing on process - we support institutions over extended periods, often in multiple-year cycles.

Piotr Idziak is a sociologist and anthropologist of culture. He creates exhibition narratives for museums and heritage routes, works in the planning and promotion of cultural tourism and co-creates development plans for museums. He is a coach in heritage interpretation techniques, a moderator of team creative processes and co-author of the publication 'The local museum in a global world - a practical guide'.
Katarzyna Baranska is an art historian and member of the Dynamics of Exhibition programme which is focused on workshops and cooperation with museums in the field of interpretive planning and arrangement of exhibitions. After five years of working as an editor, she pays close attention to text and words.

Ivana Jagic, Mirna Draženović and Iva Klaric (Croatia)

Challenges and opportunities for heritage interpretation in Croatia
Presentation, 25 min

Joining the EU in 2013 led Croatia to new avenues of financing natural or cultural heritage interpretation projects and many local communities have recognised this trend as a strategy for their future development. However, heritage interpretation is still a new and uncommon term in Croatia and the system of creating innovative heritage interpretation is still insufficiently developed. Therefore, in April 2016, the Croatian Association for Heritage Interpretation - Interpret Croatia - was founded to encourage excellence and efficiency in the interpretation of Croatian natural and cultural heritage, to develop a platform for exchange of ideas, knowledge and experiences and to raise awareness of the role and importance of heritage interpretation. Working on its mission, Interpret Croatia has recognised many opportunities. The path of the development of heritage interpretation in Croatia may be challenging but it is inspiring, in view of all the heritage potential and its strong European dimension.

Ivana Jagic has degrees in museology and heritage management and in Tourism Management. She has worked at Muses Ltd as a museologist and tourism manager since October 2013 and since 2016 she is the Association Secretary for the Croatian Association for Heritage Interpretation - Interpret Croatia.
Mirna Draženović has degrees in museology and heritage management and in Cultural Management. She has been working at Muses Ltd as a museologist and cultural manager since October 2013.
Iva Klaric has degrees in history of art, museology and heritage management and managing sustainable tourism development. She has worked at Muses Ltd as a museologist and tourism manager since October 2015.

Valeria Klitsounova (Belarus)

Special mission of teaching heritage interpretation in
post-socialist countries

Presentation, 25 min

Heritage interpretation is a new academic discipline in the higher education of post-socialist countries. There are only a few universities where you can find such courses and Belarusian State University is one of them. The course has existed since 2014 as a discipline in the International Tourism Department (52 hours). It is based on innovative democratic approaches and principles where students learn to express their individual opinions and conduct dialogues trying to find the special meaning of a heritage resource. Within the framework of the course, we demonstrate best practice in interpretation and involve students in creating individual interpretation programmes. During exams they present their programmes in front of audience and involve other students in this activity; students then evaluate the interpretive ability of the presenter. According to the ASK matrix we form new attitudes, skills and knowledge which students can use in their future profession and which are, to a large extent, universal.

Dr Valeria Klitsounova has worked as an Associate Professor at Belarusian State University, International Tourism Department, since 1998. She has taught the heritage interpretation course since 2014 and is the author of the very first book about interpretation in Russian. She is Interpret Europe's Country Coordinator for Belarus and is the Chair of the Board of Belarusian Association 'Country Escape'.

Luďa Klusáková (Czech Republic)

Heritage representational strategies in
Gascony and the Polish / Slovak Carpathian Region
Presentation, 55 min

This presentation seeks to focus on two interesting cases of multiple-place registration on the UNESCO World Heritage List - the French segment of the pilgrimage trail to Compostela in the Midi-Pyrenées region and the wooden churches in the Šariš and Krosno regions. The main question is about the representational strategies of the regions, where UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located: how they play with local/regional/national/global value, if at all and how they deal with other kinds of heritage reflecting the region´s history. The objective of the presentation is to look for similarities, differences, and analogical situations and categorize the variety of representational strategies for valorisation of tangible heritage, including intangible heritage and traditional economic practices and to explore how the local communities, regional bodies and cross border projects highlight overlooked factors and identify good and bad practices and bottlenecks. The presentation will give an opportunity to discuss the practice of heritage presentation in peripheral regions, which is a more frequent situation than the large cities or monumental sites; to contrast UNESCO and local / regional heritage; how they are used in self-identification and what type of obstacles they meet.

Luďa Klusáková is Professor of History at Charles University Prague. Her specialisation is urban history, and she has been a member of the European Association for Urban History since its foundation in 1992.Since 2011, in the Erasmus Mundus Master Joint Degree programme TEMA: European Territories, Identities and Development, on which she participated, heritage analysis and interpretation has been seen to be very appealing to students experiencing 'otherness' when travelling.

Irena Lazar and Zrinka Mileusnic (Slovenia)

Heritage interpretation as part of the
heritage study programmes in Koper
Presentation, 25 min

The University of Primorska offers several Bologna programmes covering the topics of heritage studies as well as its interpretation. Insights and skills acquired during the course of study introduce students to the specifics of the area, guiding them to understand various heritage fields and cultural assets within an international setting. One of the courses was designed with the Faculty of Tourism Studies and is based on estimates about the need for a broader and quality inclusion of heritage in the tourist offer in Slovenia and abroad, due to a lack of suitably educated professionals. The study course is the first of its kind in Slovenia to fill in the void in higher education in the field of heritage, heritage management and cultural tourism. An important part of the study and students' training is practical work on sites. One of the monuments where our students develop their understanding of heritage management and interpretation is the Archaeological Park Simonov Zaliv.

Irena Lazar is an archeologist and researcher with over 20 years of experience in museum work, heritage interpretation and university teaching. She has directed several national and international projects and published in the field of archaeology and heritage.
Zrinka Mileusnic is an archaeologist, teacher and researcher at the university and teaches archaeology and heritage study courses at BA, MA and PhD levels. She is also experienced in national and international projects and publishes on these topics.

Patrick Lehnes (Germany)

Heritage interpretation for migrant inclusion in schools
Presentation, 25 min

Many local communities need to integrate immigrant and refugee families which cherish their language, traditions and beliefs. At school, these young students are then confronted with the different traditions and beliefs of their new local society. Schools are, therefore, crucial places for the integration of migrants. Success depends on open-mindedness of all – the local students as well as the migrant students. "Heritage Interpretation for Migrant Inclusion in Schools" (HIMIS) is an Erasmus+ project to foster inclusive attitudes and to prevent exclusionary populism and extremist ideologies. Teachers will be trained to facilitate the development of interpretation from the perspectives of different stakeholders. Mixed groups of students will then work together to interpret local heritage sites in the context of values such as tolerance, non-discrimination, freedom, democracy, etc. This participatory process aims to provoke reflective thinking and empathy rather than providing ready-made answers.

At Freiburg University, Patrick Lehnes researches the philosophical foundations of heritage interpretation and how to apply them in interpretation practice. He also works as a freelance interpretive planner and author ( Patrick initiated the founding of Interpret Europe and served as its Executive Director from 2010 to 2015.

Patrick Lehnes (Germany)

What do populist victories mean for heritage interpretation?
Presentation, 55 min

Populist leaders aim to dismantle people's sense of reality. One of the first actions of the new populist White House was to claim openly the contrary of evidence which people could see with their own eyes. Populist leaders also attack language and thinking by twisting the meaning of fundamental concepts. The strange notion of 'alternative facts' reminded many of George Orwell's Newspeak. Both first-hand experience of real things and meaningful language are crucial for heritage interpretation. The inheritance of Western thinking is under threat. On the other hand, populists have a lot in common with interpreters: their success is based on similar communication techniques: short sentences, metaphoric language, relating themes to the audience, appealing to emotions - to name just a few. This observation demands that we look more closely into the philosophy of heritage interpretation. Is it merely an advanced skill-set to communicate with (the) people or does it have its own mission?

At Freiburg University, Patrick Lehnes researches the philosophical foundations of heritage interpretation and how to apply them in interpretation practice. He also works as a freelance interpretive planner and author ( Patrick initiated the founding of Interpret Europe and served as its Executive Director from 2010 to 2015.

Alexandra Lotz (Germany)

Czech National Stud Kladruby nad Labem:
Interpreting a living heritage site
Presentation, 25 min

This proposal deals with one of the most significant traditional horse breeding institutions of Europe, the Czech National Stud at Kladruby nad Labem. It was founded in 1579 to breed noble horses to pull the imperial carriages at the courts of Prague and Vienna. The site features different aspects of tangible and intangible heritage, including a unique cultural landscape shaped by centuries of horse breeding, a palace, historic stable complexes and the special Oldkladruby horse breed. During recent years, the stud has undergone intensive renovation with the help of European funding and now strives for World Heritage status. New facilities for visitors have been established. While heritage professionals are often working with historic sites that have lost their original purpose, the breeding institution is continuously in use. The challenge is to interpret the stud as a living heritage site in order to preserve its authenticity and its outstanding heritage values.

Alexandra Lotz has studied interior architecture, architectural conservation and world heritage management at Wiesbaden and Cottbus (Germany), Virginia (USA) and Melbourne (Australia). As a PhD candidate, she is a member of the Heritage Centre of the Brandenburg University of Technology. With her agency Horses&Heritage she is focusing on equestrian heritage. More info:

Thorsten Ludwig (Germany)

Developments around the interpretive triangle
Presentation, 25 min

As a catchy and compact model to introduce heritage interpretation in more European countries, the interpretive triangle was presented in 2003 through the EU Leonardo project TOPAS (Training of Protected Area Staff). In 2015, the model was implemented into Interpret Europe's newly started training programme. During its 15 years of development, the focus of the model has slightly changed. Questions around the triangle now reflect debates on interpretation in the 21st century. The presentation introduces the four qualities included in the model and emphasises some of the questions that are critical to keep the interpretive triangle up to date.

Thorsten Ludwig (MSc Interpretation: Management and Practice) gives lectures on interpretation at the University for Sustainable Development (HNE) in Germany. He was involved in the development and use of the interpretive triangle within the international projects TOPAS, HeriQ and InHerit. In 1993 he set up his own company, Bildungswerk interpretation, and has been Managing Director of Interpret Europe since 2015.

Michal Medek (Czech Republic)

Certified Interpretive Planner Course (IE training taster)
Presentation, 25 min

Did you know that plans are taking shape for a new IE course to address the needs of those interpretation professionals seeking to work in interpretive planning? Interpretive planning is essentially a decision-making process combining the heritage resource, the visitor experience and management issues. Just like face-to-face interpretation techniques, its fundamental purpose is to use communication to make connections and, thus, a difference. As nothing is yet set in stone, this workshop is a truly participatory. We want your ideas and opinions! You'll have the opportunity to preview course content and activities exploring the three dimensions mentioned above and have the chance to offer your own views and proposals as a welcome addition to the mix for the final course format.

Michal Medek teaches heritage interpretation at Masaryk University in Brno. He is active in shaping national policies in the field of heritage interpretation and is one of the founding figures of the Czech Association for Heritage Interpretation. Michal got his postgraduate certificate in interpretation at UHI, UK.

Michal Medek (Czech Republic)

EU funding of heritage interpretation in the
Czech Republic - opportunity lost?
Presentation, 55 min

The landscape of heritage interpretation changed considerably in the Czech Republic as well as within the other former Eastern European countries that became EU members. This contribution looks at criteria used to guide the selection of successful projects and their implementation. Who is delivering the projects and what is considered good practice.

Michal Medek teaches heritage interpretation at Masaryk University in Brno. He is active in shaping national policies in the field of heritage interpretation and is one of the founding figures of the Czech Association for Heritage Interpretation. Michal got his postgraduate certificate in interpretation at UHI, UK.

Michal Medek, Olga Žampová and Hana Havlůjová (Czech Republic)

Heritage interpretation courses in
higher education in the Czech Republic
Presentation, 25 min

The presentation shows the first attempts at the development of heritage interpretation courses at universities in the Czech Republic. Three courses from three different universities will be presented together with their methods and content and the context of their role in majors.

Michal Medek teaches heritage interpretation at Masaryk University in Brno. He is active in shaping national policies in the field of heritage interpretation and is one of the founding figures of the Czech Association for Heritage Interpretation. Michal got his postgraduate certificate in interpretation at UHI, UK.
Olga Žampová is the author of one of the first examples of good practice heritage interpretation in the picturesque border town of Slavonice. She offers heritage interpretation courses at her local College of Polytechnics in Jihlava.
Hana Havlůjová studied heritage interpretation at the Ironbridge Institute, UK. She was the leading figure in a project on educational activities development for the Czech National Heritage Institute and is currently teaching history at Charles University, Prague.

Elien De Meyere (Belgium)

How to do heritage education with young children
Presentation, 25 min

The educational sector is one of the main audiences for heritage and its interpretation. However, we have discovered a gap in our knowledge of this educational sector. In addition, heritage staff have often had no educational training. The lack of knowledge about the 'other' side could also be said for the educational sector. Knowledge about heritage interpretation and the heritage sector as a whole is sometimes very limited. In the educational sector, we encountered another problem. Heritage was and is not something teachers lose sleep over. It is not a principal topic on the long list of courses provided for children while they are growing up. These issues often start with a lack of knowledge on 'heritage education'. In this session we offer an insight into how you can bring heritage to (young) children. Through examples and case studies, we make clear how an interdisciplinary approach and artistic, participative and active methods are used to turn children into researchers themselves.

Elien De Meyere studied history and is a lecturer at the VIVES University college in the department of teacher training. Her main focus is heritage education. She organizes a course in heritage and educational training where heritage workers, educational workers and students can participate. She also undertakes research on needs in the area of heritage education and develops educational heritage programmes.

Verena Perko and Dijana Pita da Costa (Slovenia)

Balkans between East and West:
the social responsibility of heritage interpretation
Presentation, 55 min

The WWII inflicted deep wounds on the ethnic identity and cultural image of the Balkans. The Communist era and the period of Sovietisation deepened ethnic conflicts and after the fall of the Berlin Wall the newly-formed countries went their separate ways. Today, Balkan countries are dominated by an alienated, characteristically ambivalent and mostly indifferent, attitude towards heritage. People are still convinced heritage is a matter for the state. An alienated heritage experience is evident also in problems involving the public in active participation in the processes of heritisation. The presentation will focus on five topics: (1) heritage as promotor of ethical and moral values and as a base asset of democratisation; (2) interpretation in the rehabilitation processes of the social role of heritage; (3) new cultural colonisation and the importance of te development of regional heritage doctrines; (4) the inhibitory role of authorized heritage discourse; (5) heritage as a cohesive, universal value.

Verena Perko is an archaeologist and museologist. She studied Museology at the ICOM summer schools at Masaryk University in Brno (Czech Republic) and on a Paul Getty scholarship in the USA and England. She accomplished her doctoral thesis with Prof. Tomislav Šola. She is a museum curator and founder of heritage doctoral studies at the University of Ljubljana where she leads the course in museology and public archaeology.
Dijana Pita da Costa is an archaeologist and doctoral candidate in heritage studies at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. She has worked as museum guide, museum education programmes advisor, visitor researcher and social media editor and is now a freelance heritage advisor with the Cicada Association.

Dijana Pita da Costa, Franci Zidar, Klemen Rupnik and Tadej Štrok (Slovenia)

Mobile media interpretation:
financial and interpretive challenges
related to digital storytelling
Presentation, 25 min

About sixty years ago, audioguides entered museum and galleries as one form of non-personal interpretation. Since then, they have evolved into a medium accessible on most mobile phones. From museum spaces, their use has spread to natural heritage sites as well. While the European Union promotes the concept of a digital society on all levels and Slovenia has accepted its digital agenda, the support for digital interpretation in heritage projects remains very limited. The goal of this contribution is to present the benefit of funding for the development of Nexto, a cultural engagement platform and the challenges of preparing interpretation in a mobile format. We will conclude with ideas on how to support further the development of the mobile interpretation field, so that the energy invested into the project won't disappear after the grant ends, but will instead develop into a standard communication, complementary to the existing interpretation infrastructure.

Dijana Pita da Costa is an archaeologist and doctoral candidate in heritage studies at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. She has worked as museum guide, museum education programmes advisor, visitor researcher and social media editor and is now a freelance heritage advisor with the Cicada Association.
Franci Zidar, Klemen Rupnik, Tadej Štrok from Nexto are digital experts with several years' experience in digital product development and digital communications. The current focus of the platform is to expand internationally and to offer its clients new and exciting features such as gamification and augmented reality that will further increase the visitor's cultural engagement beyond passive consumption of audio guides.

Steven Richards-Price (UK)

Certified Interpretive Writer Course (IE training taster)
Workshop, 55 min

Written text that grabs the reader's attention, and holds it, is the key to effective word-based heritage interpretation. Try this taster workshop for the soon-to-be-released Certified Interpretive Writer course by Steven Richards-Price from Interpret Europe's Training Team. It will give you a flavour of the main guidelines you can follow to help shape and improve your future work. You'll discover that there are lots of techniques you can apply to engage your readers. The workshop is suitable for all of you interested in improving your writing for people. Watch out for the full course later this year!

Steven Richards-Price, Natural Resources Wales's Visitor Experience Manager, is a former chair of the UK-based AHI - the Association for Heritage Interpretation, a former Supervisory Committee member and current Training Team member of Interpret Europe. He has been involved in interpretive training for many years.

Poul Hjulmann Seidler (Denmark)

Assignment and courses as stepping stones to
reaching higher learning levels
Presentation, 55 min

One of the biggest challenges in higher education and university courses is how to 'create the bridge' from theory and practice taught in class to new, more meaningful and effective ways in everyday practice. This task demands extra attention and effort, and also requires changes in the participants' daily behaviour in striving for a more effective performance. At the Danish education of nature interpreters, this is an area and a challenge that has our special interest and the workshop will cover a number of activities / approaches targeting this. The main target group for this workshop is teachers on university courses in interpretation and related subjects. The Danish education of nature interpreters is a two-year in-service training programme consisting of seven courses each lasting four to ten days, four study assignments, and a number of activities in study groups. The participants work as nature interpreters and have a variety of different educational backgrounds, e.g. biologists, geographers, teachers or foresters.

Poul Hjulmann Seidler is responsible for the education of nature interpreters in Denmark and has worked with management and consultancy dealing with nature interpretation and education for more than twenty years. Currently he is involved in developing nature and heritage interpretation to institutions and people with special needs in a cross professional field with researchers and a psychologist.

Poul Hjulmann Seidler (Denmark)

From education to improved performance in practice
Workshop, 55 min

Some of the biggest challenges in education and courses are how to 'create the bridge' between theory and practice on the course to new and more meaningful and effective ways in everyday practice. It demands extra attention and effort that intends to make changes in the participants' daily behaviour, striving for more effective performance. In our courses, this is an area and a challenge that have our special interest and we have a number of activities and approaches targeting this.

Poul Hjulmann Seidler is responsible for the education of nature interpreters in Denmark and has worked with management and consultancy dealing with nature interpretation and education for more than twenty years. Currently he is involved in developing nature and heritage interpretation to institutions and people with special needs in a cross professional field with researchers and a psychologist.

Iva Silla (Croatia)

Heritage interpretation in city tours:
the Zagreb experience
Presentation, 25 min

City tours are a quick and simple way of starting a business in popular tourism destinations. The number of different city tours all over Europe grows together with the increase in visitor numbers. Heritage interpretation is a valuable tool in the hands of a tour guide, and many guides unintentionally learn to employ it through frequent interaction with tourists. Through real-life examples from the city of Zagreb, this presentation will explore whether tour guides use interpretive skills in various city tours. Zagreb is a good example because it has been growing as a tourist destination only during the last few years and so it is possible to keep track of all the different city tours and compare their practice. This presentation also shows the benefits and opportunities of life-long education connected with heritage interpretation for tour guides.

Iva Silla is the author of Secret Zagreb, a set of tours and activities, and runs a small tour guiding business. She has participated in several projects for the life-long education of tour guides.

Claudiu Silvestru and Diana Silvestru (Austria)

Interpretation of cultural heritage in Austria:
Management, promotion, presentation,
networking and education
Presentation, 25 min

The German term Vermittlung (mediation) spans a wide range of meanings from presentation to interpretation. In the field of cultural heritage in Austria, where the interpretation concept is widely unknown, the question arises of what is its status within different organisations, how much focus is on interpretation (even unknowingly) and where is improvement mostly needed? The project Cultural Heritage in Austria - between Presentation and Interpretation conducts a two-part survey on the attitude towards interpretation within several institutions. The first part concentrates on the interpretation of cultural heritage within public governmental and educational organisations and associations. The second part addresses over 200 museums, bearing the Austrian Museum Quality Seal. Our paper presents preliminary results focusing particularly on educational organizations as well as on the education and training of specialized personnel dealing with interpretation within public institutions and museums.

Dr Claudiu Silvestru is an architect and principal of the Cultural Heritage Integration Lab e.U. (CHI-L), a Vienna based research and planning company conducting projects which focus on an integrated approach on linking cultural heritage assets and societal development.
Diana Silvestru MA is a sociologist who has been working in several EU research projects over the past six years focusing on security and urban studies. She is a researcher at the Vienna University of Technology and a cooperation partner at CHI-L.

Valya Stergioti (Greece)

Setting the bar high: Interpret Europe's training philosophy
Presentation: 25 min

Are you interested in IE's training programme or are you an IE certified trainer yourself? Then you must know that IE's training programme is about to expand and explore fresh paths, with new courses starting this year. You probably also noticed there are ever more trainers in IE, spreading the word about heritage interpretation all over Europe. These developments are, of course, very welcome but how can we, as trainers and ambassadors of Interpret Europe, ensure that the quality of our courses is set high and remains so? What are the benchmarks we must put in place and what are the basic rules for organising and running an IE course? In this workshop you will have the opportunity to share experiences from your countries and to work both individually and in groups in order to give a realistic answer to these questions.

Valya Stergioti is an interpretive trainer, running interpretive courses in Greece and other European countries. She has been collaborating with national parks, NGOs, academic institutions and museums. In 2010 she founded Alli Meria (meaning 'Other Side') to promote heritage interpretation in Greece and the Balkans. She is the Training Coordinator for Interpret Europe.

Celine Tastet (France)

Integrating a PhD candidate within your team:
The CIFRE contract in France
Presentation, 25 min

In a context of little financing of doctoral researches in social sciences in the French higher education sector, partnerships with private and public sectors open new opportunities for PhD students as well as for professional organisations. Céline Tastet is conducting applied research in geography / anthropology concerning the interpretation of the cultural landscapes of the Causses and Cévennes, a World Heritage site. She will present the CIFRE contract, a singular measure that permits a close-collaboration among a research team, a professional organisation and the National Agency for Technology and Research. Using examples from her own experience, she explains the benefits of this link for all concerned, in terms of resources and methodology, in order to achieve a double goal: the writing of a doctoral thesis and the elaboration of an interpretation master-plan. Moreover, she also focusses on the difference in working and communicating between the academic and the professional spheres.

As a PhD candidate of the EIREST team (Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne), Céline Tastet conducts applied research in geography / anthropology about the interpretation of the Causses and Cévennes agropastoral landscape, a World Heritage site located in the south of France, and works directly with the management office of the site. She has studied social sciences in France, Canada and the USA.

Borders? I have never seen one.
But I have heard they exist
in the minds of some people.

Thor Heyerdahl